The smuggling routes lead from the diamond mines and diggings in Southern and Western Africa to entry spots such as Monroevia, Brazzaville, Burundi and Beirut. The Belgian and other European markets are often flooded with smuggled diamonds. The native sorters at the African mines who are no paid well by De Beers are paid better to smuggle them out by swallowing or palming them. Some Lebanese gangs like Janil Mohammed's run this operation in Sierra Leone. The African governments did not have either the techniques or resources at their disposal to interdict the diamond smugglers.
In Sierra Loene, Spread across the muddy, cratered moonscapes, hundreds of hunched men still break their backs day after day sifting through wet gravel with crude shovels and sieves. "Smuggling is still happening across West Africa and as a consumer you still can't be sure of what you're getting," says Annie Dunnebacke, a campaigner at the London-based advocacy group Global Witness.
In 2005, experts estimated that up to 20 percent of the country's diamond production was being smuggled. Although the weight of diamonds and precious stones imported into the United States is never given in the official reports for New York and for the entire country, yet the gems smuggled into this are worth as country much as those coming through lawful channels.
De Beers however has taken the matter into its own hands and recruited their own diamond soldiers to curb smuggling.